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UNIT–4:Work, Energy & Power

  • Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power.
  • The potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

UNIT–5: Rotational Motion

  • Centre of the mass of a two-particle system, Centre of the mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; the moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; the moment of inertia, the radius of gyration.
  • Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
  • Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.

UNIT–6: Gravitation

  • The universal law of gravitation.
  • Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
  • Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
  • Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential & Escape velocity.
  • Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

UNIT–7 Properties of Solids & Liquids

  • Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's Law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications.
  • Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number.
  • Bernoulli's principle and its applications.
  • Surface energy and surface tension, the angle of contact, application of surface tension – drops, bubbles and capillary rise
  • Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer- conduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling.

UNIT–8 : Thermodynamics

  • Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, the concept of temperature.
  • Heat, work and internal energy.
  • First law of thermodynamics.
  • The second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.

UNIT–9 :Kinetic Theory of Gases

  • The equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
  • Kinetic theory of gases: assumptions, the concept of pressure.
  • Kinetic energy and temperature: RMS speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro's number.

UNIT–10: Oscillations & Waves

  • Periodic motion: period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
  • Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. – kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
  • Wave motion: Longitudinal and transverse waves, the speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
  • The principle of superposition of waves, the reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.

Unit 11: Electrostatics

  • Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
  • Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
  • Electric flux, Gauss's law, and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
  • Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
  • Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, the combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit 12: Current Electricity

  • Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
  • Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, the combination of cells in series and in parallel.
  • Kirchhoff's laws and their applications, Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge.
  • Potentiometer – principle and its applications.

Unit 13: Magnetic Effects of Current & Magnetism

  • Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
  • Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid.
  • Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
  • Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.
  • The force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of the ampere.
  • Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity, and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
  • Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.
  • Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.
  • Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

Unit 14:Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Currents

  • Electromagnetic induction: Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents.
  • Self and mutual inductance.
  • Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current.
  • AC generator and transformer.

Unit 15: Electromagnetic Waves

  • Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
  • Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays).
  • Applications of E.M. waves.

Unit 16: Optics

  • Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
  • Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle..
  • Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
  • Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
  • Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

Unit 17: Dual Nature of Matter & Radiation

  • Dual nature of radiation.
  • Photoelectric effect, Hertz, and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation; particle nature of light.
  • Matter waves-wave nature of the particle, de Broglie relation & Davisson-Germer experiment.

Unit 18: Atoms & Nuclei

  • Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
  • Composition and size of the nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
  • Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. .
  • Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission, and fusion.

Unit 19: Electronic Devices

  • Semiconductors.
  • Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
  • Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator.
  • Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
  • The transistor as a switch.

Unit 20: Communication Systems

  • Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude, and Frequency Modulation.
  • Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only)